As alluded to above, one very important thing to acknowledge when using AAS (whether taking one hormone, stacking or cycling) is the risk of harmful side effects. Within a steroid cycle, the users will often stack other non-anabolic hormones into their program to maximize specific cycle objectives for example: the addition of drugs like Clenbuterol and/or Cytomel /T3 augment cutting/definition cycles; others called aromatase inhibitors (estrogen reducing drugs) like Letrozole . Letro and Anastrozole Arimidex are often included to inhibit the conversion of excess testosterone to negatively cycle impacting estrogen and; incorporating post-cycle therapy (PCT) drugs such as the synthetic estrogens Tamoxifen . Nolvadex , or Clomiphene Citrate . Clomid (which act as anti-estrogens in the male body), can be used alone, together, or in conjunction with those like Mesterolone . Proviron and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ( HCG ) during PCT to bridge the gap between the end of a steroid cycle (synthetic testosterone usage) and the restoration of the bodys natural testosterone production. These drugs too must be researched, and controlled in similar fashion to AAS. Thus, steroid cycles can be as simple or complex as the users individualized goals, cycle histories and levels of understanding. Below are three samples of AAS stacked cycles of varying complexity along with a beginning PCT sample, and an explanation of goal intention & rationale for the selected compounds, dosages & durations. These illustrations and commentaries will provide a better understanding of what stacking and cycling are along with the many nuances they require.
A 2016 phase 1–2 prospective study orally administered 800 mg per day to 27 patients with telomere diseases. The primary efficacy endpoint was a 20% reduction in the annual rate of telomere attrition measured. Toxic effects formed the primary safety endpoint. The study was halted early, after telomere attrition was reduced in all 12 patients who could be evaluated. 12 of 27 patients achieved the primary efficacy end point, 11 of whom increased telomere length at 24 months. Hematologic responses (secondary efficacy endpoint) occurred in 10 of 12 patients who could be evaluated at 24 months. Elevated liver-enzyme levels and muscle cramps (known adverse effects) of grade 2 or less occurred in 41% and 33% of the patients, respectively. 
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